In NONMEM, `$MIXTURE`

will allow you to estimate mixture models, where individuals are classified in to two or more populations with a certain probability. It is straightforward to simulate from models like these in your `mrgsolve`

model code.

# 1 Two Populations

Let’s imagine there were two populations in the mixture model, with the second having smaller clearance than the first. In this example, we will develop some code for a simple model and then extend it to implement the mixture model component.

A simple model might be:

In this model, we created a parameter for the population indicator (`POP`

) and if `POP`

is 2 then clearance is lower than it would be otherwise.

Compile this model and run

`Building A ... done.`

```
Warning: `data_frame()` was deprecated in tibble 1.1.0.
Please use `tibble()` instead.
This warning is displayed once every 8 hours.
Call `lifecycle::last_lifecycle_warnings()` to see where this warning was generated.
```

The profile in pink was for `POP==2`

or the lower clearance profile and blue was for `POP==1`

.

## 1.1 Modify the model to simulate a population mixture

In the get-started example model, we hard-coded `POP`

as a parameter and we had to supply the value of `POP`

in the input data set (in this case, it was via `idata`

).

For the mixture model, we want `POP`

to be simulated and we want the simulated value to be 1 with a probability of, say, 0.8 and 2 with a probability of 0.2.

To make this happen, we need to simulate a binary variate for each individual. Random numbers are easy to simulate with `mrgsolve`

when you use `$PLUGIN`

.

```
code <- '
$PLUGIN Rcpp
$MAIN
if(NEWIND <=1) {
int POP = 1 + R::rbinom(1,0.2);
}
$CAPTURE POP
'
mod <- mcode_cache("B", code)
```

`Building B ... done.`

Here, we invoked the `Rcpp`

plugin that allows us to call `R::binom(1,0.8)`

. `R::binom`

is just like the regular `R`

version, but it only draws one variate (`n=1`

).

Let’s test it out

```
ID time POP
1 1 0 2
2 2 0 1
3 3 0 1
4 4 0 1
5 5 0 2
6 6 0 2
```

Here, we’ve got 20% of the people in the population with `POP`

of 2:

Now, let’s modify the model again to incorporate our random `POP`

calculation with the PK model. I have also included a home-brewed `ETA`

using `R::rnorm`

as another example and to make the summary a little more interesting.

```
code <- '
$PLUGIN Rcpp
$PARAM TVCL = 1, V = 30, KA=1.2, THETA1 = 0.5
$PKMODEL cmt="GUT CENT", depot=TRUE
$MAIN
if(NEWIND <=1) {
int POP = 1 + R::rbinom(1,0.2);
double myETA = R::rnorm(0,sqrt(0.09));
}
double CL = TVCL;
if(POP==2) CL = TVCL * THETA1;
double CLi = CL*exp(myETA);
$CAPTURE POP CL CLi
'
mod <- mcode_cache("C", code)
```

`Building C ... done.`

And simulate again

```
ID time GUT CENT POP CL CLi
1 1 0 0.0000000 0.00000 1 1 0.7642753
2 1 1 30.1194212 68.50511 1 1 0.7642753
3 1 2 9.0717953 86.89259 1 1 0.7642753
4 1 3 2.7323722 90.25855 1 1 0.7642753
5 1 4 0.8229747 89.17134 1 1 0.7642753
6 1 5 0.2478752 86.81173 1 1 0.7642753
```

`[1] 0.1977`

# 2 Three (or more) Populations

There are probably several ways to simulate three populations. Here is one way. We’ll drop the PK model for now and focus on generating `POP`

.

Here’s what we did

- Code mixture probabilities in
`$PARAM`

- Draw a variate (
`mixv`

) from`uniform(0,1)`

- Determine
`POP`

based on the probabilities and`mixv`

- Remember: you must use
`$PLUGIN`

for this to work

Now, let’s compile and test it out

`Building D ... done.`

```
ID time POP mixv
1 1 0 2 0.46700066
2 2 0 1 0.08459815
3 3 0 3 0.97348527
4 4 0 2 0.57130558
5 5 0 1 0.02011937
6 6 0 2 0.72355739
```

And check that the population is properly configured

```
# A tibble: 3 × 3
POP n p
<dbl> <int> <dbl>
1 1 3225 0.322
2 2 6053 0.605
3 3 722 0.0722
```

And we get back the 33% in population 1, 60% in population 2, and the remaining 7% in population 3.

As a final note: remember to call `set.seed()`

prior to simulating anything random with `mrgsovle`

in order for the results to be reproducible.